Most of the time when we deploy an ASA 5505 to a client site, there is typically a single subnet behind the ASA that has all of the clients devices. The ASA’s inside interface is defined as the default gateway for the hosts on the subnet and life is good. Once you do enough of these type of deployments it becomes the norm and you forget that there are other network configurations available. The most typical large scale deployment (enterprise level) involves creating what I like to call a ‘com’ or communication network. This is almost a necessity to have when you have more than one edge device terminating connections. For instance, take a look at the below configuration. Pretty standard right? One ASA with a single subnet behind it.
This works great in some deployments, but it has its flaws. For one, what happens when you add more external network links? Say the company outgrows their site to site VPN solution and needs to put a dedicated point to point circuit in between two offices. Since the ASA isn’t capable of terminating a circuit like this it needs to terminate somewhere else. In most cases the company will purchase a router and terminate the circuit in a WIC card installed on that router. Now, where does the inside interface of that router go? Let’s take a look at the diagram below which has a significantly larger infrastructure shown.
Now we have something that resembles a full network infrastructure. In the diagram above we have two edge devices. One is the firewall, which terminates the internet connection, and the second is the router, which terminates the point to point circuit between the offices. Additionally, we added a layer 3 switch which aggregates traffic between the users and the edge devices. For those of you who don’t know, a layer 3 switch is essentially a switch that can talk and route IP. This means that the switch functions both at the data link layer (layer 2) for switching frames, and the network layer (layer 3) for switching packets. In addition to defining VLANs like any other layer 2 switch, a layer 3 switch can define interfaces on the VLANs. Cisco calls these interfaces SVIs or switched virtual interfaces. The switch sees all of the defined interfaces as directly connected routes. What this means is that the layer 3 switch can route between any of the VLANs that have SVIs defined on them. So in the above example let’s say we have two VLANs defined on the Layer 3 switch.
VLAN 2 – Communication VLAN – SVI : 18.104.22.168
VLAN 3 – User data VLAN – SVI: 192.168.127.254
We then tell the users to use the 192.168.127.254 IP address as their default gateway. Additionally we configure routes in the layer 3 switch as follows.
192.168.137.0 255.255.255.0 22.214.171.124
0.0.0.0 0.0.0.0 126.96.36.199
192.168.137.0 is the remote network at the other end of the point to point link. That being said, we tell the layer 3 switch to route traffic destined for that subnet to the routers inside interface which can then route the traffic over the link to the remote office. The second route is a default route which tells the layer 3 switch to throw any other requests out to the internet through the ASA.
At this point, some people might stop thinking they have a complete network configured. However, they’ve forgotten one crucial piece. Return routing…. If you don’t understand what I mean by that, let’s take a quick example. Let’s say that a user on the LAN tries to ping google.com. The following is a list of what occurs…
-Client tries pinging google.com
-A local DNS server resolves the domain google.com to an IP
-The client machine realizes that the IP returned from the DNS lookup is off network, so it send its ping to its default gateway
-The default gateway does a route lookup, realizes it doesn’t have a specific route for the IP and sends the traffic out its default route to the ASA
-The ASA receives the traffic and allows the traffic out to the internet
-When a reply comes back, the ASA looks at the destination network and drops the packet
The only networks the ASA knows about are the ones defined on its interfaces. In this case, the reply came back to the ASA and since the ASA didn’t have a route to the 192.168.127.0 network it dropped the packet. The same result would happen with traffic coming and going over the point to point circuit router. Both edge devices need to know how to get traffic back to internal subnets that they aren’t directly connected to. The problem is easily remedied by adding a route to each edge device. Adding the route on the ASA would look something like this.
ASA# config t
ASA(config)# route inside 192.168.127.0 255.255.255.0 188.8.131.52
A look at the routing table now shows…
ASA# show route
Codes: C – connected, S – static, I – IGRP, R – RIP, M – mobile, B – BGP
D – EIGRP, EX – EIGRP external, O – OSPF, IA – OSPF inter area
N1 – OSPF NSSA external type 1, N2 – OSPF NSSA external type 2
E1 – OSPF external type 1, E2 – OSPF external type 2, E – EGP
i – IS-IS, L1 – IS-IS level-1, L2 – IS-IS level-2, ia – IS-IS inter area
* – candidate default, U – per-user static route, o – ODR
P – periodic downloaded static route
Gateway of last resort is 184.108.40.206 to network 0.0.0.0
C 220.127.116.11 255.255.255.0 is directly connected, inside
C <Outside Network for internet connection> 255.255.255.252 is directly connected, outside
S 192.168.127.0 255.255.255.0 [1/0] via 18.104.22.168, inside
S* 0.0.0.0 0.0.0.0 [1/0] via <Outside Gateway for internet connection>, outside
As you can see, the ASA now has a route to the 192.168.127.0 network through the SVI on the layer 3 switch. The point of this post was to make sure that you understand that the return route is just as important as the forward route. Hopefully you’ve also realized that the ASA isn’t always a stand alone device and often times is just a piece to a much larger networking fabric.